P. Kepič: Arrays of Plasmonic Nanostructures Made of Phase-Change Materials (BUT, 2019) (bachelor’s thesis)
Fundamentals of cathodoluminescence in a STEM: The impact of sample geometry and electron beam energy on light emission of semiconductors by Michael Stöger-Pollach, Kristýna Bukvišová, Sabine Schwarz, Michal Kvapil, Tomáš Šamořil and Michal Horák
Ultramicroscopy Volume 200, May 2019, Pages 111-124
Link to ORDP experimental dataset
Cathodoluminescence has attracted interest in scanning transmission electron microscopy since the advent of commercial available detection systems with high efficiency, like the Gatan Vulcan or the Attolight Mönch system. In this work we discuss light emission caused by high-energy electron beams when traversing a semiconducting specimen. We nd that it is impossible to directly interpret the spectrum of the emitted light to the inter-band transitions excited by the electron beam, because the Čerenkov effect and the related light guiding modes as well as transition radiation is altering the spectra. Total inner re ection and subsequent interference effects are changing the spectral shape dependent on the sample shape and geometry, sample thickness, and beam energy, respectively. A detailed study on these parameters is given using silicon and GaAs as test materials.
Formation of Tungsten Oxide Nanowires by Electron-Beam-Enhanced Oxidation of WS2 Nanotubes and Platelets by Miroslav Kolíbal, Kristýna Bukvišová, Lukáš Kachtík, Alla Zak, Libor Novák, and Tomáš Šikola
J. Phys. Chem. C, DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.9b00592, March 9 2019
Link to Open access version (preprint)
Link to ORDP experimental dataset
Oxidation of van der Waals-bonded layered semiconductors plays a key role in deterioration of their superior optical and electronic properties. The oxidation mechanism of these materials is, however, different from non-layered semiconductors in many aspects. Here, we show a rather unusual oxidation of tungsten disulfide (WS2) nanotubes and platelets in a high vacuum chamber at a presence of water vapor and at elevated temperatures. The process results in formation of small tungsten oxide nanowires on the surface of WS2. Utilizing real-time scanning electron microscopy we are able to unravel the oxidation mechanism, which proceeds via reduction of initially formed WO3 phase into W18O49 nanowires. Moreover, we show that the oxidation reaction can be localized and enhanced by an electron beam irradiation, which allows for on-demand growth of tungsten oxide nanowires.
Geometric-Phase Microscopy for Quantitative Phase Imaging of Isotropic, Birefringent and SpaceVariant Polarization Samples by Petr Bouchal; Lenka Štrbková; Zbyněk Dostál; Radim Chmelík, and Zdeněk Bouchal
Scientific Reports 9, Article number: 3608 (2019), March 5 2019 (Open Access)
We present geometric-phase microscopy allowing a multipurpose quantitative phase imaging in which the ground-truth phase is restored by quantifying the phase retardance. The method uses broadband spatially incoherent light that is polarization sensitively controlled through the geometric (Pancharatnam-Berry) phase. The assessed retardance possibly originates either in dynamic or geometric phase and measurements are customized for quantitative mapping of isotropic and birefringent samples or multi-functional geometric-phase elements. The phase restoration is based on the self-interference of polarization distinguished waves carrying sample information and providing pure reference phase, while passing through an inherently stable common-path setup. The experimental configuration allows an instantaneous (single-shot) phase restoration with guaranteed subnanometer precision and excellent ground-truth accuracy (well below 5 nm). The optical performance is demonstrated in advanced yet routinely feasible noninvasive biophotonic imaging executed in the automated manner and predestined for supervised machine learning. The experiments demonstrate measurement of cell dry mass density, cell classification based on the morphological parameters and visualization of dynamic dry mass changes. The multipurpose use of the method was demonstrated by restoring variations in the dynamic phase originating from the electrically induced birefringence of liquid crystals and by mapping the geometric phase of a space-variant polarization directed lens.
High-Resolution Quantitative Phase Imaging of Plasmonic Metasurfaces with Sensitivity down to a Single Nanoantenna by Petr Bouchal, Petr Dvořák, Jiří Babocký, Zdeněk Bouchal, Filip Ligmajer, Martin Hrtoň, Vlastimil Křápek, Alexander Fassbender, Stefan Linden, Radim Chmelík, and Tomáš Šikola
Nano Lett. 2019, 19 (2), 1242-1250; DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.8b04776, January 2 2019
Optical metasurfaces have emerged as a new generation of building blocks for multi-functional optics. Design and realization of metasurface elements place ever-increasing demands on accurate assessment of phase alterations introduced by complex nanoantenna arrays, a process referred to as quantitative phase imaging. Despite considerable effort, the widefield (non-scanning) phase imaging that would approach resolution limits of optical microscopy and indicate the response of a single nanoantenna still remains a challenge. Here, we report on a new strategy in incoherent holographic imaging of metasurfaces, in which unprecedented spatial resolution and light sensitivity are achieved by taking full advantage of the polarization selective control of light through the geometric (Pancharatnam-Berry) phase. The measurement is carried out in an inherently stable common-path setup composed of a standard optical microscope and an add-on imaging module. Phase information is acquired from the mutual coherence function attainable in records created in broadband spatially incoherent light by the self-interference of scattered and leakage light coming from the metasurface. In calibration measurements, the phase was mapped with the precision and spatial background noise better than 0.01 rad and 0.05 rad, respectively. The imaging excels at the high spatial resolution that was demonstrated experimentally by the precise amplitude and phase restoration of vortex metalenses and a metasurface grating with 833 lines/mm. Thanks to superior light sensitivity of the method, we demonstrated, for the first time to our knowledge, the widefield measurement of the phase altered by a single nanoantenna, while maintaining the precision well below 0.15 rad.